As Quebec’s Separatists Return to Power, English Speakers Grow Wary

After nine years out in the cold, the Parti Québécois is back in power in the largely Francophone province. What does it mean for Quebec's English-speaking minority?

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CHRISTINNE MUSCHI / Reuters

Parti Québécois leader Pauline Marois addresses party supporters after winning a minority government in the Quebec provincial election in Montreal on Sept. 4, 2012

On Sept. 4, Quebec elected Pauline Marois of the sovereigntist Parti Québécois (PQ) as the Canadian province’s first female Premier. But that evening, her triumph was greeted with bullets. During Marois’ victory speech in a Montreal hall, a gunman wearing a bathrobe killed one person and critically injured another. He is reported to have shouted in accented French, as he was being carted off by police, “The English are rising up!”

While it was a lone, extremist incident, a sense of unease and uncertainty grips this province of 8 million, about 8% of whom speak English as a first language. Marois will preside over a minority government, having taken 54 of the 125 seats in the province’s National Assembly, nine fewer than is required for a majority. That the PQ has risen to power, bringing to an end the Liberal Party’s nine-year reign, is an indication that Quebec badly wanted change. But it isn’t an indication of the type of change Quebec badly wants.

The PQ’s raison d’être is a commitment to Quebec’s secession from the rest of the country, but it has clearly won by too narrow a margin to reintroduce that debate. In fact, a recent survey shows that just 28% of the province’s population supports independence. Marois’s win has much less to do with separation than with widespread disapproval and mistrust of the allegedly corrupt Liberal Party. Former Premier Jean Charest lost his own seat in this race and has resigned from politics, leaving the opposition leaderless. If not for the mass student protests over a proposed hike in tuition fees that rocked Quebec for months earlier this year, the Liberals might have been annihilated completely; many voters favored the incumbent party’s aggressive law-and-order stance during that tumult. (Marois says her new Cabinet will revoke the tuition hike. Also, the face of the student movement, 20-year-old Léo Bureau-Blouin, was among the PQ candidates elected.)

(MORE: Quebec Student Protesters Take On the Government)

As it happens, none of the parties had a winning campaign, and it is likely that another election will be held soon. But not too soon. The Liberals, now the official opposition, will need a year to groom a new leader and regroup. And the Coalition Avenir Québec, an upstart party that was hoping to be a vehicle for change but didn’t do as well as it expected, is not in any rush. Perhaps in the coming months Marois will be sufficiently shot down by the federal government, led by Conservative Prime Minister Stephen Harper, in her requests for greater provincial autonomy that she’ll be able to sell the separatist cause to a larger number of frustrated Quebecers. Perhaps the Liberals will revive, or perhaps they’ll be crushed by the results of an ongoing inquiry into corruption in government construction contracts. The province is at a crossroads. As Antonia Maioni, a political-science professor at McGill University, says, “French Quebecers haven’t made up their mind for the long term about where they want to be and where they want to go.”

That may prove worrisome for English Quebecers. Quebec’s minority Anglo community is, of course, united in its opposition to secession. And recent events seem to indicate that the PQ win has stoked the province’s language divide. Days after the shooting at Marois’s rally, a Francophone woman made news by throwing a tomato sandwich at a man allergic to tomatoes because he spoke English in the cafeteria line at a local hospital. This week, a photo of Marois doctored to sport a Hitler mustache appeared on Facebook, accompanied by the English caption, “How long will it take her to f**ck up Quebec?” In social-media posts that circulated on election night, young Anglophones threatened to take off for Ontario or British Columbia. One, by a Montreal transplant to Vancouver, read, “Today, I’m more proud than ever to no longer be a Quebecer.”

Marois’s election platform has called for various measures that could marginalize Anglophones. Among other things, she has pledged to expand Bill 101, the province’s French Language Charter, to make French the mandatory language for small businesses with as few as 11 employees and to limit access to English-language CEGEPs (junior colleges). But she will need the support of the opposition to make good on these promises, and that is far from a given. Already, Graham Frasier, Canada’s commissioner of official languages, has said he will be keeping a close eye on the PQ to ensure that the constitutional rights of Anglophones remain intact. The province has seen two votes on secession, one in 1980 and another in 1995, and the latter was lost by less than 1%. If, as an English speaker, you didn’t leave town then, you probably aren’t going anywhere right now.

Some members of the Anglophone community are, after the PQ win, airing grievances — specifically, that they feel culturally alienated in their own home — that they have held for a long time and that are largely independent of the province’s political leadership. Others are silent, passive, looking forward to the next election and to a reversal. However, the Liberal Party will have to remake itself and may not be able to take on the mantle of representing English Quebecers anymore. “The English community, we cannot stick our heads in the sand and say, Let’s wait this one out,” says Maioni. “Marois may stick around, and she may be the one to change things. How does the English community deal with that? How do we engage and remain active members of Quebec?” In this unsure moment, French and English would do well to pursue a communal coexistence separate from policy and political parties. Then perhaps the leader who finally brings them change will be able to govern beyond language.

20 comments
Simon Seamount
Simon Seamount

 I am teasing tongue-in-cheek because I want to point out what might happen if Canada splits apart.

Simon Seamount
Simon Seamount

We down in the United States will be glad to incorporate the English-speaking provinces as you states if Quebec decides to split. 

TheMovingFinger
TheMovingFinger

In Europe the French want to keep a wide Euroland comprising a number of states. in Canada they want to break up a state into French and English parts. How do you say "consistency" in French?

Eddie Raumman
Eddie Raumman

As an English-speaking outsider American and frequent visitor to Quebec, I say vive la difference!  Celebrate the culture.

deliaruhe
deliaruhe

The failure of economic globalism, with its predictions of the disappearance of the state and prosperity for all, is bound to raise all kinds of sleeping spectres: nationalism is one of them.  Indeed, I'm surprised that the PQ got only a third of the vote.  Depending on how cleverly they govern in coalition, they may do better next time around.

As for anglo-Canadians, we in the West have proved ourselves pretty small-minded when it comes to understanding that what makes Canada culturally unique is our bi-lingual, multi-cultural makeup.  Quebec is producing world-class literature, drama, and music.  Most people from Ontario east understand and appreciate that.  But we Westerners are, for the most part, unimpressed.

Nevertheless, there are still a few Western families who send their kids to French immersion school--people who aren't scared that their kids may end up knowing more than they themselves do.  That trend needs to continue and expand.

Maximo LeGrand
Maximo LeGrand

 what you say is exactly the same things as : ''the black have infiltrated the South African government and worked to end apartheid as an evil agenda against the great awesome perfect AngloSaxon''

Qiao Zhang
Qiao Zhang

les québécois ont droit de protéger leurs propres langue et culture, tant que le Quebec est tellement petit sur le continent de l’Amérique du nord. Anglopohone should not use their way of thinking to juge quebecers' actions. One question to all english canadian is do you want Canada to loose its Atlantic ocean ? 

Rao_Sahib
Rao_Sahib

It is a hush-hush talk behind the scenes that PQ will bring in a legislation that all parents would name their children atleast with one French-Christian name.  They do that in France.- like Pierre Mohammad Khan etc.

Didier Martins
Didier Martins

No the french don't. You invented this by yourself. Why spread silly rumours?

therantguy
therantguy

Quebec separation is one of those classic negotiating ploys. The reality is that Quebec is a net receiver of Federal funds to the tune of billions annually and has used its position to net museums, building contracts and endless bending over backwards by the rest of Canada.

The simple reality is that a country made up of Ontario-Manitoba-Alberta and maybe BC (with Manitoba in there solely for convenience of land mass) would still be a first world country while Saskatechwan, Quebec and the rest of the East would instantly fall to the level of Greece or Spain in monetary problems.

Quebec isn't going anywhere.

kikatrixx
kikatrixx

 you can't have a country made up of BC, Ontario, Alberta and Manitoba and another one one made of Saskatechewan Quebec etc.  Look at the map.

kikatrixx
kikatrixx

 you can't have a country made up of BC, Ontario, Alberta and Manitoba and another one one made of Saskatechewan Quebec etc.  Look at the map.

kikatrixx
kikatrixx

you can't have a country made up of BC, Ontario, Alberta and Manitoba and another one one made of Saskatechewan Quebec etc.  Look at the map.

Didier Martins
Didier Martins

If the atlantic side of Canada is such a burden and a lame duck then why not let it go, I ask.

You have a strange way to defend Canadian unity.

RobertSF
RobertSF

I believe you, just like it was true of the North/South division in America. Had the South seceded, they would be a Third World country today. What I don't understand is why, in every case I've seen, it's the stronger, wealthier side that pleads with the weaker, poorer side not to leave. Why doesn't the rest of Canada wave bye-bye (or au revoir) to Quebec?

NB152
NB152

Someone should also expose the situation going on in New Brunswick, Canada as well with regards to the French language overtaking English. Except that in New Brunswick, the majority of the province are Anglophone speaking! However, somewhere along the line, New Brunswick was designated as the only officially bilingual province in Canada, and gradually, the French language has been allowed to dominate - in schools (where children are shoved into French immersion at an early age), and mainly in the workforce (as all the best jobs require you to be bilingual). Unfortunately, the majority of New Brunswickers are NOT bilingual, but so many Francophones have infiltrated the government systems here that they are pushing their own agendas (and the French language) down our throats. Consequently, there is a huge brain drain as many Anglophones are leaving the province.

Maximo LeGrand
Maximo LeGrand

 Francophones have infiltrated the government systems??

Francphone where here before Anglophone therefore its normal they are in the government of their country

Yoel Sanchez
Yoel Sanchez

Oh, then we should be ruled by Algonquians and Iroquoians, after all they were already here when the French arrived!!

This has always been the silliest of all nationalist claims!!

Margie B. Pierce
Margie B. Pierce

The reality is that Quebec is a net receiver of Federal funds to the tune of billions annually and has used its position to net museums, building contracts and endless bending over backwards by the rest of Canada. http://Ace16.com

Maximo LeGrand
Maximo LeGrand

 the reality is that Quebec receive 11 billion back out of the 40 billions per year we pay ROC in taxes

Quebec is the second most populated province and the second economie in Canada. And as one of the first province of Canada Quebec paid the ''BIG'' price of the development of the ROC