Snowden in Moscow: What Russian Authorities Might Be Doing With the NSA Whistle-Blower

Former Russian security officials and spies suspect NSA whistleblower Edward Snowden is being kept in a Russian safehouse outside Moscow and will struggle to escape his Russian handlers without sharing his secrets.

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David von Blohn / NurPhoto / Sipa USA

Activists' posters in front of the German Chancellery in Berlin show solidarity with whistle-blower Edward Snowden as he seeks asylum in countries like Germany on July 4, 2013

Correction appended: July 11, 2013.

In the summer of 1985, KGB colonel Oleg Gordievsky was called back to Moscow from the Soviet embassy in London, where he was serving as a resident spy. As a pretext, his commanders told him that he was going to receive an award for his service. But in fact the KGB suspected him of being a double agent — which he was — and they were looking to interrogate him. So upon his arrival, his KGB colleagues, still concealing their suspicions, took him to a comfortable country estate in the suburbs of the Russian capital, much like the one where Gordievsky and other former spies believe Edward Snowden, the NSA whistle-blower, has spent the past few weeks.

Since June 23, Snowden has been marooned somewhere in Russia, far out of reach of the U.S. government, which wants to put him on trial for exposing the secrets of U.S. intelligence agencies. The official story coming from the Russian government since then is that Snowden has been holed up in the transit zone of Moscow’s Sheremetyevo airport, waiting for some third country to grant him asylum. But few experts or officials in Moscow still believe that to be true. The accepted wisdom, unofficially acknowledged by most Western and Russian sources, is that Snowden was taken soon after his arrival — if not immediately — to a secure location run by some arm of the Russian government.

(MORE: What Snowden Needs Now Is a Good Lawyer)

The reason has to do with the secret data Snowden stole from his former employers at American intelligence agencies. This data, which he can likely still access, would make him a high-value target for Russian spies. “Without a doubt, a person with inside knowledge like that, live and in the flesh, would be a very useful catch,” says Mikhail Lyubimov, a 20-year veteran of the KGB who headed the agency’s spying activities against the U.K. and Scandinavia in the 1970s. “He is carrying information of great importance.”

As an experienced hacker and computer expert, Snowden could, however, be expected to protect all his secrets through encryption and by storing them in a remote data cloud. Nikita Kislitsyn, the editor of Russia’s Hacker Magazine, says encryption systems are available that would likely stump the experts working for the Russian government. “We don’t know the exact capabilities of our special services,” he says. “But there are programs on the market today that encryption experts believe to be very solid. Their algorithms would take years to crack even with the kinds of supercomputers available to the state.”

In order to access Snowden’s data, Russian security services would therefore need him to provide the encryption keys and passwords to his data cloud, which he does not seem likely to give up voluntarily. His supporters have cast him as an altruistic whistle-blower; handing over secrets to the Russian government would seem to undermine the values of transparency that he extols.

(MORE: How the West Enabled Snowden’s Bid for Latin American Asylum)

So Gordievsky believes Snowden would have gotten roughly the same treatment that the KGB spy got back in 1985. “They would have fed him something to loosen his tongue,” Gordievsky says by phone from the U.K., where he has been living in exile for nearly three decades. “Many different kinds of drugs are available, as I experienced for myself.” Having been called back to Moscow, Gordievsky says his KGB comrades drugged him with a substance that “turned out his lights” and made him “start talking in a very animated way.” Although the drug wiped out most of his memory of the incident, the parts he did recollect horrified him the following morning, when he woke up feeling ill. “I realized that I had completely compromised myself,” he says.

One of the substances the KGB used for such purposes at the time was called SP-117, which is odorless, tasteless and colorless, according Alexander Kouzminov, a former Russian intelligence operative who describes the drug’s effectiveness in his book, Biological Espionage. Now living in New Zealand, Kouzminov worked in the 1980s and early 1990s for the Foreign Intelligence Service, the spy agency known as the SVR, which handles undercover agents, or “illegals,” stationed in foreign countries. In his book, Kouzminov writes that various drugs were used periodically to test these operatives for signs of disloyalty or diversion. Once the drug had worn off, the agents would have no recollection of what they had said and, if their test results were satisfactory, they could be sent back into the field as though nothing had happened.

Although it is impossible to determine which of Russia’s secret services could be handling Snowden’s case, Gordievsky believes it would be either the SVR or one of the offshoots of the Federal Agency for Government Communication and Information, known as FAPSI. Before its functions were handed to two other agencies in 2003, FAPSI was the Russian analogue of the U.S. National Security Agency, where Snowden worked as a contractor before fleeing to Hong Kong in May with a cache of the agency’s files.

(MORE: Putin to Offer Snowden Asylum, but With a Catch)

Most of the secrets Snowden has exposed are related to the NSA’s vast surveillance programs, which he revealed to be collecting data on tens of millions of phone calls and Internet communications around the world. FAPSI’s functions are now split between two of Russia’s main security agencies—the Federal Security Service, or FSB, and the Federal Guard Service, or FSO. These agencies operate their own data-gathering stations in various countries, mostly in the former Soviet Union, and all of them would be keen to learn as much as possible about the work of their American counterparts. “[Snowden] could have information about the internal parameters of these systems, their lists of targets and priorities,” says Vladimir Rubanov, who headed the KGB’s analytical directorate in 1991–92, after which he served three years as deputy head of the Russian Security Council. “Yes, all of this is pretty interesting,” he says. “And it is a fool who has the chance to get information and misses it.”

But Rubanov, who has remained closer to the security services than the other former agents TIME interviewed, tried to downplay Snowden’s importance. “I don’t think he has anything that would really surprise us,” says Rubanov, who sits on the Council on Foreign and Defense Policy, a state-connected think tank. “The Americans shouldn’t worry so much,” he says. And even if Russia wanted to get Snowden’s encryption keys, there would be no need to drug him. “I think he would give them up himself. It’s just a question of price.”

Asked where Snowden might be taken to negotiate such a matter, Rubanov says each agency has numerous country estates, or dachas, around Moscow that could be used. The headquarters of the SVR, for instance, is in a suburb called Yasenevo, a short drive from Sheremetyevo airport, and it includes a swimming pool, basketball court and restaurant, all hidden behind a high wall that runs along the perimeter. (A slide show on the agency’s website shows some of its amenities.) “Even out of humanitarian considerations, why not take him to some kind of comfortable place, where he can have all of his technical needs provided for?” asks Rubanov. “For a foreign guest, all of that should be available.”

But a retired officer of the SVR, who holds the rank of major general, insists that Snowden is not being held at any of the agency’s facilities. “At this point, this story has nothing to do with the security services,” he says, asking not to be named. “It is purely political now.”

(MORE: Snowden and Putin: U.S. Whistle-Blower’s Fate Is in Russian President’s Hands)

Politically, Snowden seems to be a liability for President Vladimir Putin, who has said several times that he would prefer for Snowden to get on a plane out of Russia as soon as possible and stop disturbing Moscow’s already fraught relationship with Washington. Snowden’s most likely destination now seems to be Latin America, where several countries — namely Venezuela, Bolivia and Nicaragua — have agreed to grant his asylum. But getting him there may be a slow affair. Snowden’s U.S. passport was annulled in June, and it may take days or weeks for him to get new travel documents. That process, says Gordievsky, could be delayed if Russia feels it needs more time with the American. “They will not let him go without turning him inside out,” he says. “But by now I think they’ve gotten all they need from him. They’ve had plenty of time, which is why they’re letting him go so easily.”

Far more easily, it seems, than Gordievsky’s escape in 1985. Although the KGB’s reasoning remains a mystery to this day, the agency decided not to arrest Gordievsky immediately after he outed himself as a double agent who had passed secrets that year to the British intelligence service. Instead, the KGB put him under surveillance, which he managed to shake a few days later while on a walk around the neighborhood. His British handlers then smuggled him across the Finnish border in the trunk of a diplomat’s car. Wherever Snowden is at the moment, he’s likely hoping he makes it out of Russia at least as safely as Gordievsky did.

MORE: On the Run to Moscow, Edward Snowden Keeps Americans Guessing

The original version of this story mistakenly described the Federal Agency for Government Communication and Information (FAPSI) as Russia’s equivalent of the NSA. FAPSI’s functions were actually split between two other Russian federal agencies in 2003. The story has been amended to reflect this.

234 comments
vipyr82
vipyr82

But what if someone were to leak Russian surveillance information to Snowden about what the government does to its own citizens? What will he do then?

btt1943
btt1943

To former KGB veteran Putin, Snowden might be seen as a threat and a liability. Putin knows too well what Snowden could do to Russian security if he remains in the country. Hence, he must leave. 

YanniSorolov
YanniSorolov

He is talking about the Soviet Union, not Mother Russia, which is a far different place.


Back in 1860 blacks were kept as slaves and nearly exterminated the entire Native  American population. 

shustry
shustry

@michaeldweiss Thanks! the breadth of responses to this story has been amazing. From livid condemnation to your kind words. Both appreciated

ian.marsman
ian.marsman

Hey, since it now seems that this article is idle speculation the author might still get some mileage out of it by writing a novel. Who knows what Snowden will deal with in the future, but a news vacuum should not result in this sort of idle speculation.

Lexx
Lexx

Do people still read time lol? 

JEyal_RUSI
JEyal_RUSI

@shashj Not possible, since Snowden never stepped on Russian territory, and FSB is scrupulous for legality

antonionio
antonionio

 @PaulWilliamson 

Wikileaks is paying for his travels and other expenses and many of us are helping to pay for his expenses through donations to Wikileaks because I appreciate his illumination of US practices. There's no host nation paying his way. He goes to the nations who will not likely extradite him since there is no safe way for a whistleblower to operate through the chain of command when trying to report illegal activities at the NSA. Research what has happened to those who have tried.

I don't know about hero, but I'm glad he exposed spying on Americans. He is a patriot ro be sure.


Anthony

antonionio
antonionio

Gotta love the title; "What the Russian Authorities MIGHT be doing..."

Pure speculation based on a vacuum of information.

lambda
lambda

Please remind me of V

PatFaherty
PatFaherty

Probably is where he planned to be all along. He doesn't fool a lot of us and that 55% will most likely drop fairly soon. 

circa1636
circa1636

Let Snowden take his classified quips of whistleblowing to the proper court of law. To a closed hearings so not to let our communist neighbors learn our counties secrets. Doesn't concern the rest of the world, that's why you sign your pledge not to reveal any thing classified for your country. Snowden is the new Benedict Arnold at very least (well then he won't be offered his last cigarette) But what he revealed, and to whom, of his country, needs to be examined for our own safeguarding 

JohnDavidDeatherage
JohnDavidDeatherage

He went to Hong Kong and people said the Chinese have him.  They'll squeeze the information out of him.  Now's he's in Moscow and people (this article) says he's in a russian prison squeezing information from him. Please...

He's a network Admin. He's not James Bond.

WilfTarquin
WilfTarquin

It wouldn't be surprising if Russian keeps Snowden for some months to a year to "debrief" him, it's normal procedure with spies. What's surprising is that China didn't.

JenniferCohagen
JenniferCohagen

Who the hell is Gordievsky?  Did the media ever focus on him, was he a global sensation, were there literally millions of people hinging on what he might say?  LOL.  Oh, Gordievsky knew he was compromised?  Ok.

Russia is poised pretty, without risking anything, and Putin is having a field day.  Snowden is single-handedly neutering the US and its ability to conduct illegal surveillance of allies and its own citizens.  If left alone, Snowden could keep it up, literally for YEARS.  Snowden is an infinitely important asset to both Russia and China, as-is.

Or, Russia could drug him, Snowden would realize it and soon as he's out of Russia, blab that fact to everyone like Gordievsky did.  It wouldn't make sense, but ok, whatever is convenient for your propaganda hit-piece here.

Sibir_Russia
Sibir_Russia

@TeaWithCarl@chrisirvine86 

Ex-CIA intelligence analyst Edward Snowden will remain at Moscow's Sheremetyevo Airport for some time and he does not intend to fly to Latin America, a participant in Snowden's meeting with Russian rights campaigners said.

"He said he needs political asylum in Russia in order to gain freedom of movement. He is satisfied with his being in the airport, because everything is going well there. The only thing he seeks is freedom of movement,"

Read more: http://english.ruvr.ru/news/2013_07_12/Snowden-hopes-asylum-in-Russia-will-give-him-freedom-of-movement-4065/

 

shustry
shustry

@JEyal_RUSI @shashj "FSB is scrupulous for legality" Good one. May I suggest you ask your RUSI colleague Igor Sutyagin about that.

dave9000
dave9000

@antonionio You claim no host nation is paying his way, but anyone can contribute money to Wikileaks. So it would be quite easy for China or Russia to fund Wikileaks just as a way to poke the US in the eye. Both the Washington Post and USA Today reported today about the damage Snowden's leaks are causing to the US's ability to monitor China. WIth those necessary safeguards weakened, China could amp up its hacking activity against the US and cause significant damage to both our economic well being and our infrastructure.

loadcode
loadcode

@circa1636 Except the US is incapable of giving whistleblowers a proper court of law as they have shown time and again. Only an idiot would stand before a mock trial in the US.

You speak of putting Snowden on trial, what about putting the people in government and the NSA who broke the 4th amendment on trial? Clapper lied to congress, and nothing has happened to him. I guess the NSA is above the law.

ThisIsNotJohn
ThisIsNotJohn

@circa1636- you already posted that text below and it's just as weak here as it was there.  Stop spamming.

"In a time of universal deceit, telling the truth is a revolutionary act"– George Orwell

ThisIsNotJohn
ThisIsNotJohn

@WilfTarquin- What’s surprising is how irrelevant: Snowden, his intent, China, Russia, and particularly the US news media; how irrelevant they area – compared to the now proven fact that the US Government spies on every one of its people and keeps data in perpetuity.

The incipient United Stasi of America has the potential to make the FSB look like silly clumsy children.Then so many people in the world will think of Americans, and you in particular, with the same disdain you’ve been bread to think about Russia all these years.

Jawja
Jawja

@JenniferCohagen I'd bet Putin leaked the info Snowden was on that jet that was denied passage.I can see the little shrimp snickering.

TeaWithCarl
TeaWithCarl

@mattholehouse Security spans both "physical" & "electronic". Snowden & Assange/Appelbaum (advice) unlikely to make that rookie mistake.

JEyal_RUSI
JEyal_RUSI

@shustry @shashj Simon, my remarks were a joke, but obviously one which fell flat! Enjoyed your piece very much.

ThisIsNotJohn
ThisIsNotJohn

@dave9000- You wrote: “Both the Washington Post and USA Today reported today about the damage Snowden's leaks are causing to the US's ability to monitor China. WIth those necessary safeguards weakened, China could amp up its hacking activity against the US and cause significant damage to both our economic well being and our infrastructure.”

You clearly have no idea what you are talking about.Elsewhere below you give good advice for commenters to not make comments on legality.I advise you to not make further comment on hacking.

And referencing the Washington Post is not advised either.They are making complete fools of themselves in the NSA/Snowden drama.

http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/2013/jul/10/washington-post-walter-pincus-correction 

USA Today, not so much.This is an outstanding contribution of theirs.

http://www.usatoday.com/story/news/politics/2013/06/16/snowden-whistleblower-nsa-officials-roundtable/2428809/ 


JenniferCohagen
JenniferCohagen

@WilfTarquin @JenniferCohagen So what ou're saying Wilf is that if you hold someone against their will and interrogate them, its paramount to "befriending", and Snowden will freely give up the info because he's Russia's new best-bud, because he's been befriended.

 His lover for some 5+ years didn't know he was going to blow the whistle and leave her forever.  His father obviously loves him very much, and he didn't know Snowden would become a whistleblower.  Think about that for a while and revisit your baseless comment once you realize how silly it is.

mattholehouse
mattholehouse

@TeaWithCarl strikes me as more likely the Russians would want to question Snowden. No sign of him in the hotel he's said to be at.

shustry
shustry

@JEyal_RUSI I'm sure it was just my tin ear. Anyway, many thanks, glad you enjoyed it. And please give my best to Igor