What’s the Deal With the Iran Nuclear Deal?

TIME's guide to the Iran nuclear deal forged in Geneva this weekend — what was agreed, what was not and what's all this about uranium enrichment, anyway

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Iran's Presidential Office / Xinhua / Corbis

Iranian President Hassan Rouhani attends a press conference at the presidential palace in Tehran, on Nov. 22, 2013.

What just happened?
Over the weekend, a meeting in Geneva between Iranian officials and representatives from the permanent members of the U.N. Security Council (the U.S., the U.K., France, Russia, China) and Germany reached what amounts to a temporary deal on Iran’s controversial nuclear program. For the next six months, the Iranians have agreed to halt any activity that could boost their ability to build a nuclear weapon and agreed as well to what seems to be rigorous new international inspections. In return, the U.S. and its allies will afford Iran some relief — though the roughly $7 billion on offer is not much — to the crippling regime of international sanctions that has hobbled the Iranian economy in recent years.

Why is Iran’s nuclear program considered such a threat?
Iran’s nuclear program launched in the late 1950s with considerable American aid — at the time, the country’s ruling monarchy was firmly in Washington’s geopolitical camp. That all ended when the 1979 revolution toppled the Shah and ushered in the Islamic Republic. Thereafter, successive Iranian governments have insisted their nuclear program is intended entirely for peaceful, civilian purposes and that they have no interest in building a bomb. The West, chiefly the U.S. and Israel, looks upon this claim with great skepticism.

(MORE: Not Everyone’s Happy: Hard-Liners in Iran Criticize Geneva Nuclear Deal)

In the past decade, tensions have deepened, with former U.S. President George W. Bush lumping Iran into the “axis of evil” and Iranian counterpart Mahmoud Ahmadinejad earning notoriety for his bellicose rhetoric, particularly when aimed at Israel. Critics of Tehran see it as a destabilizing force with unsavory friends, propping up Syrian President Bashar Assad and the powerful Lebanese militant organization Hizballah. Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu has claimed repeatedly that an Iranian nuclear weapon poses an existential threat to his country. Israel is believed to have waged a covert war against Iran’s nuclear interests, ranging from stealth-missile strikes to computer viruses to the assassination of Iranian scientists. NATO justifies its own long-running plan to build a European missile shield on the existence of an Iranian nuclear threat. Finally, an Iranian nuclear weapon, some analysts fear, would spur an arms race in the Middle East, leading regional rivals like Saudi Arabia to pursue their own nuclear deterrents.

Have other budding nuclear powers faced this scrutiny?
No, not really. It’s an open secret that Israel already has nukes. Like Israel, India and Pakistan are not signatories to the U.N.’s Non-Proliferation Treaty on nuclear weapons (Iran is). When the two South Asian archrivals tested their own nuclear bombs in quick succession in 1998, it triggered a fair amount of international outrage and hand-wringing. But that didn’t last too long — most glaringly, the U.S. inked a potentially lucrative nuclear-energy deal with India in 2005. The spotlight shined on Iran’s nuclear program has little to do with upholding international norms and much more with the realpolitik of the fractious Middle East.

We keep hearing about uranium enrichment. What’s that all about?
You have to enrich uranium for both reactors and bombs because natural uranium is mostly U-238, which means the atoms have three extra neutrons in their nuclei. But U-238 nuclei don’t break apart (or fission, to use the technical term) very easily. That means they can’t generate a self-sustaining nuclear reaction. To make that happen, you need atoms of U-235, which are more fissionable but also much rarer — less than 1% of a chunk of natural uranium, by weight. The most efficient way to boost the percentage of U-235 is with a series of centrifuges that whirl uranium gas around at very high speeds. Some of the heavier U-238 atoms are whipped out to the edges, leaving the gas in the core slightly enriched with U-235. Then take out the enriched gas, put it in another centrifuge, and repeat the process until you get the purity you need.

(MORE: Israel Renews Warnings of Military Action After Iran Nuclear Deal)

So what does the deal do to Iran’s nuclear capabilities?
At least for the next six months, Iran will cease enrichment of uranium beyond 5%, will not install new centrifuges in its facilities and will have to keep some of its existing centrifuges inactive. Iran has also agreed to dilute or convert into oxide its existing stockpile of uranium enriched at 20%. The deal also puts a freeze on work at the heavy water reactor at Arak. And Iran has agreed to a strict, new regime of monitoring by the U.N.’s atomic energy agency that will make it much harder for the international community to be taken by surprise should the Iranians attempt what is known as nuclear breakout.

What’s the difference between 5% or 20% or 90% enriched uranium?
Uranium that’s been enriched to 5% is pure enough to be used in many types of power-generating reactors. Some power reactors, and some research reactors used to make radioactive isotopes for medical treatments, need uranium enriched to 20%. An atomic bomb requires much purer U-235 — up to 90% enriched, although some crude bombs can be made with slightly lower-enriched uranium. (This all applies to a conventional atomic bomb, like the one dropped on Hiroshima in 1945; a hydrogen bomb uses an atomic bomb as a trigger to ignite a much more powerful thermonuclear explosion, a fusion not a fission reaction.) It’s important to note that it’s much more difficult to get from 1% U-235 up to 20% than it is to get from 20% to 90%.

Is it easy to dispose of enriched uranium stockpiles?
It’s laborious, but not complicated. You thoroughly mix enriched uranium with U-238 until the percentage drops back down to natural levels. Once you’ve done that, it’s just as tough to purify the uranium as it was the first time around.

What is plutonium, then, and is the process to use it different?
Plutonium is an entirely different element from uranium, but it’s radioactive as well, and, like U-235, it’s fissionable, so you can use it in bombs or reactors. The bomb that the U.S. dropped on Hiroshima used uranium; the one that destroyed Nagasaki used plutonium. Plutonium bombs are technically more difficult to manufacture. The reason why the facility at Arak concerns those who want to halt Iran’s nuclear program is that it uses plutonium, which is even more dangerous and toxic than uranium, and an air strike on the Arak plant would lead to unconscionable, deadly fallout.

(MORE: Iranians Celebrate Nuclear Deal)

So what does Iran get in return for its concessions and cooperation?
Some $4.2 billion of the less than $7 billion of sanction relief tendered to Iran comes from the country’s own assets frozen in foreign banks. Moreover, the grinding sanctions on Iran’s oil exports and banking sector put into place by the E.U. remain almost totally intact (the concessions involve loosening commercial restrictions on gold, automobiles and pharmaceuticals). As London-based analyst Shashank Joshi puts it: “Iran will still be forfeiting over three times as much in foregone oil revenue as it will gain in relief.” But what Iran does come away with from Geneva is an implicit recognition of its right to enrich uranium — a sticking point for a nation that stressed repeatedly ahead of the Geneva talks the importance of recognizing Iranian dignity and sovereignty. Given the celebrations that greeted the returning Iranian negotiating team, it’s clear many Iranians welcome what is an important step away from the isolationist drift of the Ahmadinejad years.

Who’s unhappy with the deal?
Not long after the deal was brokered late Saturday night, Israel’s hawkish Netanyahu deemed it a “historic mistake” (the stock market in his own country seemed to disagree). Though far less outspoken, the largely Sunni Gulf states, chiefly Saudi Arabia, are wary of American rapprochement with Iran, a Shi‘ite theocracy and main regional rival. Some reports suggest the Saudis are poised to kick-start their own nuclear program, perhaps with Pakistani help. Congressional Republicans have criticized the Obama Administration for being supposedly soft on an untrustworthy regime. Some hard-liners in Iran have also found cause to complain: opposition factions in both Tehran and Washington could yet scuttle the whole process.

What changed in U.S.-Iran relations for the deal to happen?
The surprise election of the moderate cleric Hassan Rouhani as President of Iran earlier this year did much to dispel the bad odor left behind by eight years of Ahmadinejad. Rouhani’s historic overtures to the U.S. that followed were received by a cautious, yet willing Obama Administration. And Rouhani’s appointment of the suave former Iranian ambassador to the U.N., Mohammad Javad Zarif, as the country’s Foreign Minister and lead nuclear negotiator proved crucial. So too, it seems, were secret, back-channel meetings between American and Iranian officials in Oman. For the moment, diplomacy and dialogue have won the day, but the talks will have to continue — and trust between Iran and its Western interlocutors will have to deepen — before a lasting deal can be reached.

MORE: The Iran Deal: A Humanizing Breakthrough

65 comments
DeanJackson
DeanJackson

For those of you not in the know, Iran has had operational intermediate-range nuclear weapons since February 1992. Where did Iran get them from? Where do you think:


"In late 1991, only months after Kazakhstan had become 'independent', and during the period of maximum 

confusion in the West over the nature of the 'changes' ostensibly taking place in the 'former' USSR, Iran purchased its first operational nuclear weapons, primarily from Kazakhstan. Iranian intelligence agents brought the weapons and related materials via Turkestan, and 'ex'-Soviet experts were brought in as troubleshooters. By the end of January 1992, the operational status of the weapons had been confirmed. At roughly the same time, Iran acquired parts for the Soviet aerial nuclear gravity bomb from 'former' Soviet military depots in the Turkestan Military District and Tajikistan, where key details of the purchase were apparently negotiated. Iran is also believed to possess a nuclear artillery shell of 0.1 kiloton yield, which was offered to Iran by Kazakhstan during negotiations in the region for the other nuclear devices. [Sources: The Grand Strategy of Iran', Task Force on Terrorism and Unconventional Warfare, US Congress, Washington DC, in 'Global Affairs', Fall issue, 1993; 'Security Affairs', published by Jewish Institute for National Security Affairs [JINSA], Washington DC, June 1992, citing a 1992 report by the Task Force). The deception related to the channelling of this Soviet nuclear weapons technology via newly 'independent' 'ex'-Soviet Republics -leaving Russia, as the continuing signatory of the Non-Proliferation Treaty, with 'clean hands' in the matter." -- Editor's Note, "The Perestroika Deception", by KGB defector Major Anatoliy Golitsyn (1995).

and

Google the October 27,  2011 Washington Times article: 'KAHLILI: Iran already has nuclear weapons: Western intelligence has known it for years'

Here's a portion of the Washington Times article:

"The pressure the United States and the West is bringing to bear on Iran to keep it from acquiring nuclear weapons is all for naught. Not only does the Islamic Republic already have nuclear weapons from the old Soviet Union, but it has enough enriched uranium for more. What’s worse, it has a delivery system.

The West for nearly a decade has worried about Iran’s uranium enhancement, believing Iran is working on a nuclear bomb, though the government maintains its uranium is only for peaceful purposes.

When Iran began its nuclear program in the mid-1980s, I was working as a spy for the CIA within the Revolutionary Guards. The Guards‘ intelligence at that time had learned of Saddam Hussein’s attempt to buy a nuclear bomb for Iraq. Guard commanders concluded that they needed a nuclear bomb because if Saddam were to get his own, he would use it against Iran. At that time, the two countries were at war..."


AjaxLessome
AjaxLessome

Iran retains its full capacity to enrich uranium, thus abandoning a decade of Western insistence and Security Council resolutions that Iran stop all uranium-enrichment activities. Allowing Iran to continue enriching, and despite modest (indeed, utterly inadequate) measures to prevent it from increasing its enriched-uranium stockpiles and its overall nuclear infrastructure, lays the predicate for Iran fully enjoying its “right” to enrichment in any “final” agreement.  Indeed, the interim agreement itself acknowledges that a “comprehensive solution” will “involve a mutually defined enrichment program.”  This is not, as the Obama administration leaked before the deal became public, a “compromise” on Iran’s claimed “right” to enrichment. This is abject surrender by the United States.

 

حزب الجبهه الديمقراطيه الصفحه الرسميه
حزب الجبهه الديمقراطيه الصفحه الرسميه

Barrister Counselor Dr. Ahmed Diab Please vote to Time Magazine that Time,s Person of the year is Professor Dr. Counselor Ahmed Diab " Counselor Ahmed Diab " the Leader of Democratic Front Party in Egypt & Coming President of Egypt who is fighting against anti Human Rights all over Egypt who is also Egyptian & Arab Organization for Human Rights in Cairo , he is well & high qualified educated from The United States of America as well as Egypt. He got a Doctorate degree in International Law, second Doctorate degree in Criminal Justice Law and the third Doctorate Degree in English Language: Email : Vote_for_Dr._Professor_Ahmed_Diab1@mail.com Dr. Professor Ahmed Diab Coming President of Egypt Is the Winner of the Medal of Excellence of the Most Influential Figures in the World 2013 in Human Rights from Switzerland يتسلم اليوم المستشار د . أحمد دياب رئيس حزب الجبهه الديمقراطيه والمرشح المستقل السابق لرئاسة مصر بجائزة التمييز العالميه كأفضل شخصيه عالميه فى مجال حقوق الانسان على مستوى العالم من المجلس الدولى لحقوق الانسان بجنيف بسويسرا http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jzMdrInQXQ8 برجاء التصويت للمستشار د .أحمد دياب رئيس حزب الجبهه الديمقراطيه ورئيس مصر القادم برجاء التصويت له وأختياره رجل تايم لهذا العام حتى تنتصر الشرعيه

Musa Polat
Musa Polat

did US make a bargain ? after millions of innocent people and soldiers dead in the Mİddle east ..why didnt do that with İRAQ ,AFGANISTAN OR LUBNAN?

sridhar.sid
sridhar.sid

This is an excellent analysis. For all his faults, Obama must be given credit to read the signals. On Syria, he joined Russia in taking the pressure off Assad, on North Korea Obama has worked with China and now on Iran, he again has achieved a unique consensus amongst World powers because Rouhani offered a wonderful opportunity to bring Iran back into the mainstream. Finally, the US is showing Statesmanship, whilst also curbing Military spending in unnecessary wars. Obama may earn the Nobel Prize with his deeds, afterall!

Tiger-Pi
Tiger-Pi

Recall this report of Mar. 5, 2009 — Ben-Gurion University of the Negev engineers had developed a technique to "denature" plutonium created in large nuclear reactors,making it unsuitable for use in nuclear arms. By adding Americium (Am 241), a form of the basic synthetic element found in commercial smoke detectors and industrial gauges, plutonium can only be used for peaceful purposes.  this could be done in the case of all nuclear material found in Iran, completely   preventing them from diverting  any nuclear material for making bombs. 

jwarrencollins
jwarrencollins

The west....at least the SANE elements of the west...wants very much to avoid the hell of war, and thus is willing to risk being the dope in yet another rope-a-dope deal, willing to cue up Lucy's football for Charlie Brown to see if maybe, perhaps, against the backdrop of years of Iranian bad behavior, we can hope to keep from having to destroy an ancient people in an inconceivably nasty war. It stands to western reason that it's one thing to be a sharp negotiator, and yet another to risk the very existence of your culture over a minor point of negotiation. History suggests Iran will likely make a hateful choice....but history CAN be a false indicator of the future. We can hope....at least for awhile longer.

smehgol
smehgol

As a signatory to the Non Proliferation Treaty, Iran accepts continuing IAEA inspection and has an internationally recognized right to develop and implement nuclear technology. Having rejected both IAEA inspection and the NPT, Israel has no such right. Yet the Jewish State has hundreds of nukes and openly threatens Iran, actually campaigns for war against Iran. Israel, not Iran, is the warmonger. Resolution lies with lifting all sanctions and compensating Iran for damages from the $$$ billions we will no longer be giving the Jewish state. American foreign policy must again serve American interests, not the Jewish state's paranoid pursuit of invulnerability, territorial conquest and racist empire in and beyond the Mideast.

wjhanna
wjhanna

The article hardly gave us anything new. It couldn't. The agreement is a lot of yabber about allegations which are totally false from the start.  If doesn't seem to deflate John Bolton who says we should bomb Iran anyway. John McCain will continue to babble on also. And Netanyahu...starting to sound worse than Amajhinedad (?) ever did.

Procivic
Procivic

Some 40 countries have nuclear programs similar to Iran's but no country has allowed intrusive IAEA inspections to the tune of 5,000 man-days nor have the NPT goalposts been consistently moved to pressure Iran.

The media should be throwing the spotlight on those states that have refused to sign the NPT while amassing sizable arsenals of nuclear weapons -- Israel, India and Pakistan. In the meantime, messianic Israelis, whether Netanyahu or his predecessors, regularly threaten to bomb Iran and have "predicted" an imminent Iranian nuclear bomb since 1992.  

CrowdsGather
CrowdsGather

The author says Iran 'will' do this and 'will not' do that. Right! Sure! You bet! They will do whatever they want and will only refrain from doing what they feel like not doing. It is virtually impossible to monitor their actual compliance with what the agreement reportedly requires. And I seriously doubt that he has actually read the document anyway.  I wonder if thy took the Pelosi approach to it (find out what it says after it becomes effective). I sure hope it works but the Iranian leadership hasn't done anything to suggest they will honor it except in the breach. The past history with them proves it.

lunawatson85
lunawatson85

@sridhar.sid Hopefully Rouhani follows through though. He is supposedly "moderate" but let's see him act like it.

lunawatson85
lunawatson85

@smehgol And it goes farther than that too based on whether a country has or doesn't have a moral standard. Iran's human rights record is appalling compared to Israel's.

mikevolze
mikevolze

@smehgol Except for the fact that Iran has refused to allow the IAEA access into several potential nuclear sites in country.  The whole POINT of the deal was to ensure access for inspectors.  So explain how Iran has been following the rules again?

lunawatson85
lunawatson85

@Procivic Those countries also probably don't have nearly as serious of human rights abuses, do they?

mikevolze
mikevolze

@Procivic Iran has also been hit with 5 UNSC Resolutions demanding access to their nuclear facilities, those other nations were not. Why? Because Iran is run by a theological dictatorship and threatens to destroy nations it doesn't like.

ricardo_lion
ricardo_lion

@Procivic   Are you really comparing Jewish (the religion of Jesus), democratic and civilized (no hanging of gays, women stoning, "honour" killing of girls, cannibalism, etc.) Israel to the Iran ruled by medieval Muslim clerics?

Iran is the one that started threatening Israel.  Iran is a theocracy and their religion was invented by an Arab obsessed with Jews and the Jewish capital, Jerusalem.  All "prophets" in the religion invented by that Arab are not Arabs like himself or from any other small people, but all Jews (today less than 0,2% of the world population) and for some reason Jewish Jerusalem is holy to Islam too.  Whatever happened to Iran`s original religion, the one the followed before being converted by the Arabs?  Why don`t they go back to it?  The problem, obsession with Jews, would go away.

lunawatson85
lunawatson85

@CrowdsGather Right. The P5+1 must make sure to hold the Ayatollah and Rouhani accountable to this agreement.

Z4BS
Z4BS

@CrowdsGather What part of Iran's past History proves it? Please show an example of when Iran have made an agreement and then not honoured it? General statements like yours without any supporting evidence is what most people call blowing hot air.

jwarrencollins
jwarrencollins

@alex.reston @jwarrencollins Really? Hostage taking of Americans? Anti west war cells in Iraq, Syria, Lebanon, Gaza? Israel's right to exist? Denial of Holocaust? Death to America? The insistence on producing weapon grade nuclear material?  I don't even know where to start, and I wonder what deep imponderable ignorance one must have to even advance such a question. 

alex.reston
alex.reston

@lunawatson85 @smehgol 

Israel's human rights record is better for it's own citizens, I can agree with you there. American tax payers help them have great life! They even have free health care.The problem is those Israeli citizens who have it better are mostly Europeans colonists living on land that was taken taken from the native people who are treated terribly. Israel treats the Native Palestinians worse then cattle, much worse then Iran treats it's people. It retaliates to bottle throwing teenagers with tanks and jet fighters destroying whole communities in the process. Israel has killed huge numbers of Palestinians while calling them terrorists to justify it. Then demolish entire villages to make room for internationally illegal settlements. It scuttles any and all peace talks with its foul behavior. I have to disagree that Israel has a better human rights record then Iran.

alex.reston
alex.reston

@mikevolze @smehgol  

Iran has and will continue to have the worlds most monitored nuclear facilities. What we were asking for was to inspect sites/things that Iran did not have to give us access to such as military facilities.

alex.reston
alex.reston

@ricardo_lion @Procivic  

First of all the original "Semitic" Jews were Arabs themselves. If you read the old testament its pretty barbaric. Most of the Jewish leadership today are Europeans with no connection to the land other then the religion they practice. I am not religious and will agree that Mohamed learned a lot of what later became his religion from the Ansar Jewish community in Saudi Arabia. So what? The Jews learned a lot of their religion from Persian Zoroastrians and the Persians from a group before them. Religions and people evolve. Jerusalem is holy to Christians, Muslims, and Jews and it should be shared by them all. All three religions can be practiced in a violent intolerant way or in a gentle way. No religion is better or worse then the other and all of them are just imperfect mythical stories mixed with a little tainted history.

ssss
ssss

@ricardo_lion @Procivic

" Jewish (the religion of Jesus:Yes the One they tortured and threw filth on while on the Cross for THREE DAYS!Are Jews following the religion of Jesus?!!

The stereotyping about gays and honor killing shows your ignorance about Islam , just as much as the idiots that commit such crimes!

To think someone changes their belief based on fear, is a western cliche! Their culture and pride does not allow for it.

Now did the Muslims go to claim Spain because it used to be their land?The Muslims had their land "STOLEN" by England and Israel.

Let Iran make the bomb and level the ground field a bit,we don't need to make enemies with the whole world for the sake of another country! Go live there and fight their wars if you like, don't use my money!

wjhanna
wjhanna

@ricardo_lion @Procivic C'mon, Israel only picked up on Iranian rhetoric to avoid dealing with the Palestinian issue. Now Israel may start to see they have backed themselves into a blind alley..There is no way forward, no way back.

ricardo_lion
ricardo_lion

@Z4BS @CrowdsGather   Iran has been threatening Israel with anihilation and is already at war, via proxis, Muslim terrorist group Hezbollah in Lebanon and Muslim terrorist group Islamic Jihad in Gaza.

jwarrencollins
jwarrencollins

@alex.reston @jwarrencollins Ah...apologies. I thought I read your post to mean "we're all bad people so let's get to blasting each other 'cuz it's good for business". But in your clarifying statement I see that you agree that Obama's original, highly criticized campaign notion that speaking to one's enemies and detractors is far better than the more used GOP rule of "blast now, talk later". So...we are in general agreement about this issue concerning how to curtail war threat.

alex.reston
alex.reston

@jwarrencollins @alex.reston  

I agree with you. War is terrible and should be avoided. My point is that Iran isn't any more devious then America. We are the more powerful of the two and we have done far more damage to them then they have done to us. If we harden our stance they will harden theirs. If we talk nice they will talk nice. If we admit the bad things we did to them they will admit what they have done. That is the first step in settling this old dispute and insuring that their is no war that will hurt all of us.

jwarrencollins
jwarrencollins

@alex.reston @jwarrencollins  I started the post with a SANE ELEMENTS disclaimer, attempting to allow that the far right and other elements do damage to America when they act without thought. My hope now is to move forward in a sane and diplomatic way to avoid yet more unnecessary war even as the haters on the right howl meaninglessly within their political Neocon darkness. I realize the right goes immediately to the name-calling, however war itself is insane, and not to attempt to avoid it is the epitome of ignorance. Within that framework, it doesn't appear by deploying a PeeWee Hermanesque "I know you are but what am I" argument that you're particularly qualified to add much to the larger discussion.

alex.reston
alex.reston

@jwarrencollins @alex.reston  

Ok. But America overthrew Iran's democratically elected Prime Minister for oil money. Would you be mad if China overthrew America's government and installed a King in order to steal our natural resources? None of the hostages were killed. We shot down an entire plane of Iranian civilians. We sold Saddam Hussein Chemical weapons and told him exactly where to shoot them killing over 100k Iranians. While you are right that Iran supports proxie groups that take violent action against others America and Israel do exactly the same thing.  As far as Israel's right to exist Iran has said it backs any decision accepted by the Native people of Israel (the Palestinians). Unfortunately I am afraid you are more ignorant of the truth then I am. You cannot be objective and ignore double standards.

alex.reston
alex.reston

@ricardo_lion @alex.reston @Procivic  

What if I were to argue that Jesus was just a Romanized version of the Persian god Mithra who was born to a virgin mother on Dec. 25th and died for man's sin? What if I told you that the Romans under Constantine nationalized Mithraism into Christianity for political purposes? Did you know that 3 Persian magi (Zoroastrian priests) who visited "Jesus/Mithra" when he was born? Calling them Wise men is a clever way to avoid telling the simple what you don't  want them to know. If that is true does that then mean that Israel/Palestine should to the Iranians?  Jesus if he existed was a brown Arab. Israel is a European colony for European Jews who wanted a state of their own after other Europeans murdered them. The point is that no European has any claim to Israel/Palestine. If religions have a claim to the land the claims are equal and should be shared equally among all of those with a claim.

ricardo_lion
ricardo_lion

@alex.reston @ricardo_lion @Procivic   Jerusalme is open to all religions today, to Jews, of course, the owners of the city, to Christians, tho whom Jerusalem is holy because of a famous Jew, rabbi Yeshua / Jesus and to Muslims, because Mohammed was obsessed with Jews and their land.  Jerusalem was closed to Jews from 1948 to 1967 when it was occupied by Jordan (and not "Palestine"), a judenrein autocratic kingdom in Palestine, given by GB to one family from Arabia.

ricardo_lion
ricardo_lion

@alex.reston @mikevolze @ricardo_lion @wjhanna @Procivic   "..Native Palestinians like garbage in their own land."  The natives of Palestine (Jewish / Greek name) are the Jews.  Those that started calling themselves "Palestinians" in 1964 are Arabs, invaders from Arabia.  People are tretaed like garbage in the 22 judenrein Muslim Arab bloody dictatorships and medieval kingdoms, but not in the 0,00000000000....1% of the ME, the 20% of Palestine called Israel where Arabs and other minorities have rights and live in peace.

alex.reston
alex.reston

@mikevolze @ricardo_lion @wjhanna @Procivic  

Its more complicated then that. Iran has done things for Jews throughout history starting in 587BC when it freed them from Slavery and rebuild their temple for them. If that never happened Jews might not even exist today. Iran's native religion heavily influenced early Judaism as well. Israel has had an Iranian president, it has Iranian Generals. Iran has had a large Jewish population for thousands of years, the biggest outside of Israel. Iran's problem is not with Jews it is with Zionism and European colonialism. Iran has been bossed around by more powerful nations for hundreds of years and it seeks total independence. It sees Israel as a European colony. Before the Mullahs took over Israel and Iran were very close but the current leadership has a memory of the Shah's years in power. At the time Mossad and the C.I.A trained the brutal SAVAK services that tortured or Killed  anyone who disagreed with Iran's King. Israel threatens to attack Iran regularly and rallies people and Nations around the world against it. While I do not like Iran's government it has conducted far less terrorism then Israel has. Israel treats the Native Palestinians like garbage in their own land. Those Palestinians are more then likely the descendants of the original Jews. In short Israel is the antagonist.

ricardo_lion
ricardo_lion

@Z4BS   No proof those scientists were killed by Israel, hope they were.

  Are you really comparing Jewish (the religion of Jesus), democratic and civilized to the Iran ruled by medieval Muslim clerics?

Z4BS
Z4BS

@ricardo_lion @Z4BS @CrowdsGather Do you forget the Nuclear Scientists killed by Israel in Iran. Do you forget the computer virus that attacked Iranian systems most probably created and deployed by Israel. Do you forget the support by Israel for terrorist groups within Iran who have been attacking innocent Iranians. Iran's hands are not clean in this but neither are Israels or USA's. All parties have been fighting a dirty war which has included some reprehensible acts.

Also Israel has threatened that a military strike against Iran is an option on the table and that they are actively considering it. Frankly it is naïve to say that Iran has been doing the threatening and Israel has been sitting on his hands playing nice.

However my argument was not based on who is right or wrong. My point was that Crowdgather called Iran untrustworthy. I wanted supporting evidence or sources of an instance where Iran has proven to be untrustworthy.